NIE number - Who needs it?
This is the identification number of each foreigner in Spain and is required to selling or buying a property in Spain, register a business, open a bank account (not necessary for foreign accounts) etc and for almost all other forms that you will have to fill out
Whenever you enter into Spain, being to start your new life or to do any kind of economic/bureaucratic activity, there is something essential you will need. You will need to be identified in the country as a foreigner. And, for that, an NIE number is required. Why? Because you will need this number for nearly everything. In this article, we are going to cover the main details about this basic identification number in Spain. What is it exactly about, types, how to get it, and much more. Are you ready?
What exactly is the NIE number?
The NIE is basically an identification number assigned to foreigners, so they can be identified once they enter into Spain.
If we translate, it literally means Identity Number of the Foreigner ("Numero de Identidad de Extranjero") in Spanish
We are talking about a number that will never change and that will accompany you throughout your entire life (or until you get the Spanish nationality). It is unique and personal.
But there is something really important you should bear in mind. The NIE number does not allow you to legally reside in Spain.
Can you live and work in Spain with an NIE?
A foreigner can be in possession of this number but not of the legal residency in Spain.
Many people confuse the NIE with the residency, and those are two different concepts. A foreigner can be in possession of this number but not of the legal residency in Spain. Hence, we are talking about a mere identification number.
If you would like to spend more than 3 months in the country, you must then apply for a residence (and work) authorization. Nevertheless, if you are planning to be less than 90 days in the country in order to realize any procedure, the NIE will be enough.
Which are the reasons in which you actually need this basic identification number? To sum up, to conduct any kind of economic or bureaucratic procedure in Spain. Here you will find a list containing some examples that require you to get an NIE in Spain:
- Opening a bank account
- Enrolling in the social security
- Buying a car
- Selling or buying a property in Spain
- Paying your taxes in the country
- Setting up a company
- Getting your driving license
- Accepting a job offer and thus getting employed
- Applying for your residence permit
Types of NIE
Basically, there are two different types of NIE numbers. This difference stems from the individual who is applying for it and its nationality:
This type of ID number is designed for EU citizens residing in Spain. Even though these individuals can already work and live legally in the country for more than 3 months, they also need the NIE in order to carry the before mentioned activities. In this case, the NIE comes in a document called "certificado de registro como residente comunitario" (Registration certificate).
Then, the Non-resident NIE, which is mainly for non-EU citizens who enter into Spain. Furthermore, those individuals from inside the European Union that plan to live in Spain for less than 3 months per year will also receive this type of NIE.
For example, in our office, we have many clients from countries such as China, the United States, Russia, Mexico... They all come to our country because they simply want to buy a property or set up their company.
The previous step to do so will be to obtain the NIE as a non-resident. In these cases in which people need to do some paperwork in Spain but not stay for the long term, it is necessary to prove the reason for traveling to the country. And the only two reasons accepted in this case are to purchase a property or to constitute a company.
And, for this, you must go to a notary in Spain and make a notarized letter or letter of manifestations proving that reason. If you do not make such a letter or are not under either of the two previous assumptions, the NIE cannot be obtained.
Important note: it is not necessary to go in person to manage the process. A power of attorney can be appointed to do so for him/her.
What is the difference between the TIE and the NIE?
The TIE is the physical document that usually contains the NIE number.
Another crucial distinction that many tend to ignore or simply do not understand is this difference.
Is the TIE the same as the NIE? The answer is simple: no. The TIE ("Tarjeta de identidad de extranjero") is the physical document that usually contains the NIE number. Whereas the NIE is just an identification number, the TIE is the physical thing that carries it inside.
Furthermore, it also contains more than just the NIE. On it, you will also find a photo of the holder and the type of residence authorization that he or she has.
This implies that there are differences within TIEs. Each card entails a specific type of residence permit. Therefore, the TIE card that contains the student visa won't be the same as the one that contains the family member of an EU citizen or the arraigo one. There are as many different TIE types as types of permits in Spain.
Which are the documents you need to submit in order to get it?
Now that you know if you actually need an NIE or not, and which type, let's get to the specifics.
Which are the required documents you will need to present in order to successfully obtain the basic identification number for foreigners in Spain?
- You will need to fill in and submit the model EX-15.
- And, the second model required, the 790 NIE form. Bear in mind that this document comes with an associated tax you will need to pay.
- Your passport and copies of all pages.
- Empadronamiento. This basically implies getting registered in your living community.
- If you are a non-EU citizen, you must present proof of your entry in Spain. This can be accredited through a stamp on your passport or the plane ticket to Spain.
- Document proving why you need the NIE number.
- Two small photos
- Fingerprints (this won't be required for the initial application procedure)
*Bear in mind that all foreign documents must be properly translated into Spanish
How to get the NIE in Spain step by step
Once you exactly know which are the required documents you will need to present, the first step is to prepare them carefully.
Then, once you have downloaded and filled all the forms and prepared all the papers, the next step is presenting them. Where?
That depends. If you are outside Spain, you will need to initiate the application for the NIE number in the Spanish consulate or embassy in the country you are legally living. On the other hand, if you are inside Spain, you must submit the documentation at the Directorate-General offices of the Police.
Who must bring the relevant papers? You should do it yourself. But you can also designate a duly mandated representative to do it for you.
Then, the first step if you are already in Spain, the most common situation, is to go to the "Comisaria General de Extranjería". You can find here which is the police office closest to you.
Bear in mind that many of them require that you book your appointment in advance. You can book your appointment online via this link. Just select your location and the reason you would like to get your appointment, and that's it.
We would like to give you an important piece of advice here. Go as early as possible to the office. It gets crowded really fast, so if you don't want to lose the whole morning, make sure to be in line the first one. Also, make sure to bring your passport (original) and photocopies, something that many tend to forget.
Once you have been attended for the first time, you will now need to go to the bank to pay the corresponding fee of the model 790. You just need to give this paper to the bank (any institution will work for you in this step), and pay. They will give you a receipt confirming that you have already paid.
Then, you will need to head again to the Police Office to bring that receipt, and your NIE number will be on the way.
Will you have your NIE instantly? That depends. In some offices and regions, they will give you the identification number straight away. Nevertheless, in some others, it can take 4 to 5 days since the application procedure took place.
From temporary NIE to NIE
3 month NIE or regular NIE
What we have just covered was the typical process to get any kind of NIE number.
Nevertheless, there is a special type of NIE, the temporary one, which special conditions. This type of number is conceded just on rare occasions. Its peculiarity is that it only lasts 3 months. Situations in which you are looking to buy a property in Spain will enable you to get the temporary one. For other situations, like individuals looking for a job in Spain, the temporary won't be conceded.
But what happens if then, after those 3 months, you would like to transition into a regular (extended) NIE?
Once the period is coming to an end, you must book another appointment (cita previa). The extra step this time will be to register your fingerprints and provide the additional information the office requires from you. Then, you will get a receipt, proof of your NIE. And, in a month's time, you will be able to go back and finally get your "tarjeta".
How long does it take to get the NIE?
Getting the NIE is quite fast. In fact, you will get it the same day in which you have your appointment at the police station.
Thus, the only thing that hinders and delays obtaining this id number is the delay you may experience in getting that appointment.
Therefore, in order to answer this question completely, we need to make a distinction.
- For citizens outside the European Union, the NIE number takes approximately 1 week to be obtained.
- On the other hand, for EU citizens, obtaining this number will depend on the availability of the moment, as that varies from month to month. If you would like to know exactly how much that is right now, you can email us and we will kindly tell you.
How to renew your NIE number
Another mistake that many tend to do: asking how to renew the NIE
Why is that question itself a mistake? Because, as we have said, the NIE is a number that never perishes. It will be the same from the moment you get it assigned until you die. So you cannot renew it.
Nevertheless, as many people tend to confuse the NIE with the TIE, the question can be understood. And it really should be phrased as how to renew the TIE in Spain.
Now we can provide an answer. And it's pretty straightforward. You will need to book another appointment and, provided that you still fulfill the requirements that made you eligible for the TIE on the first time, you will be able to easily renew it.
Useful tips for the application
Finally, we are going to give you some tips that will really help you during your NIE application process.
1. First of all, be patient. The Spanish bureaucracy, especially when it comes to immigration issues, can be a bit slow. That is why the first step is being aware of this fact, and then deploying the required patience. You would like to get your NIE as fast as possible in order to finally start your new life in Spain or to do any legal procedure, but you must be patient and respect the timing.
2. Be assertive and don't move to the next stage until you have a definitive answer in your current one. As with other immigration procedures in Spain, many times you need an answer or approval from the competent institution to get to the next step in the process. Wait for that response and do not try to rush the process. That will just make things worst.
3. Start early and give yourself extra time. If you know that things may work slow, do not wait until the end. We mentioned before how important it was to be early on the Police Office in order to be attended fast. That can apply to any other step. Start things early, giving yourself the necessary time to handle the process, and that will avoid negative feelings.
4. Trust a professional team of immigration lawyers. Many times, as someone from another country, maybe you don't completely get the nuances of the language or maybe you don't know everything you must do in order to successfully obtain your NIE. That is why relying on immigration solicitors can be the best option. They have seen a wide range of different situations and they know exactly what to do in each of them.
When you are planning to invest in property in Spain, let us know and we will handle all the NIE as well as other required aspects for your purchase as well.
Contact us in time and we can start preparing all necessary documents for you